Giulio Andreotti e la politica in Italia (Italian Edition)
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Alcide de Gasperi and Palmiro Togliatti were the two pivotal figures of the early postwar period. Despite their different political outlook, the two collaborated during the last phase of the war and in the period just after its end. However, the relationship between the two politicians was always fraught with mistrust and deteriorated as the international situation evolved toward confrontation and as economic policy aims diverged.
By the elections the split was evident, and from then on their political outlook became more and more incompatible. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription. Please subscribe or login to access full text content. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code. For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs , and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.
All Rights Reserved. Andreotti served in numerous ministerial positions , including as Minister of the Interior and , Minister of Finance —58 , Minister of Treasury —59 , Minister of Defence —66 and , Minister of Planning and the Budget —76 and Minister of Foreign Affairs —89 and was a Senator for life from until his death in Giulio Andreotti, the youngest of three children, was born on 14 January in Rome.
His father was a primary school teacher from Segni , a small town in Lazio , who died when Giulio was two; after a few years his sister Elena also died. He showed some ferocity as a youth, once stubbing out a lit taper in the eye of another altar boy who was ridiculing him. His mother was described as not very affectionate, and an aunt is said to have advised him to remember that few things in life are important, and never to over-dramatise difficulties. As an adult he was described as having a somewhat unusual demeanor for an Italian politician, being mild-mannered and unassuming. Andreotti did not use his influence to advance his children to prominence, despite being widely considered the most powerful person in the country for decades.
Andreotti was known for his discretion and retentive memory, and also a sense of humour, often placing things in perspective with a sardonic quip. Andreotti did not shine at his school and started work in a tax office while studying law at the University of Rome.
Its members included many of the future leaders of the Italian Christian Democracy. In while researching the papal navy in the Vatican library, he met Alcide De Gasperi , who had been given sanctuary by the Pope.
Andreotti, Giulio [WorldCat Identities]
De Gasperi asked Andreotti if he had nothing better to do with his time, inspiring him to become politically active. Speaking of De Gasperi, Andreotti said, "He taught us to search for compromise, to mediate. During his early years Andreotti suffered violent migraines that forced him to sporadically make use of psychoactive drugs and opiates.
The Code served as inspiration and guideline for economic policy of the future Christian Democrats. In , Andreotti was elected to the Constituent Assembly , the provisional parliament which had the task of writing the new Italian constitution. His election was supported by Alcide De Gasperi , founder of the modern DC, of whom Andreotti became a close assistant and advisor; the two politicians became close friends despite their very different characters.
However, De Gasperi later described Andreotti as a man "so capable in everything that he could become capable of anything". Andreotti began his government career in , when he became Secretary of the Council of Ministers in the cabinet of his patron De Gasperi.
During the office, Andreotti had wider ranging responsibilities than many full ministers, which caused some envy. As the state undersecretary in charge of entertainment in , Andreotti established import limits and screen quotas, and provided loans to Italian production firms. The measures were aimed at preventing American productions from dominating the market against Neorealist films , a genre which exhibitors complained lacked stars and was held in low esteem by the public.
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As he phrased it, there were to be 'Less rags, more legs'. Raunchy comedies and historical dramas with voluptuous toga-clad actresses became the staple of the Italian film industry. To ensure that state funds were not used to prop up commercially unsustainable films, the screenplays were vetted, thereby creating a form of preproduction censorship. It was intended that Italian studios use part of their profits for high-quality films.
In a public letter to De Sica, Andreotti castigated him for his "wretched service to his fatherland". In , ahead of local elections in the municipality of Rome, Andreotti gave proof of his diplomatic skills and gained credibility. As Secretary, Andreotti contributed to the re-formation of the Italian Olympic Committee , which had been disbanded after the fall of the Fascist regime.
In , among other things, he promoted the so-called "Andreotti's veto " against foreign football players in Italian Serie A. After De Gasperi's resignation and retirement in August , Andreotti remained Secretary of the Council under the short-lived premiership of Giuseppe Pella. In the same period, Andreotti started to form a corrente unofficial political association, or a faction within the Christian Democracy, which was then the largest party in Italy.
His corrente was supported by the Roman Catholic right wing. It started its activity with a press campaign accusing Piero Piccioni , son of the deputy national secretary of the DC, Attilio Piccioni , of the murder of fashion model Wilma Montesi at Torvaianica. In the early s Andreotti was Minister of Defence , and was widely considered the de facto leader of the right-wing Christian Democratic opposition to Fanfani and Moro's strategy.
In this period the revelation that dossiers on virtually every public figure in the country had been compiled by the secret service resulted in the SIFAR affair. Andreotti ordered the destruction of the dossiers; but before the destruction Andreotti provided the documents to Licio Gelli , the Venerable Master of the clandestine lodge Propaganda Due P2. Andreotti was also involved in the Piano Solo scandal, an envisaged plot for an Italian coup in requested by then-President of the Italian Republic Antonio Segni.
In , Andreotti was appointed leader of the parliamentary group of the Christian Democracy, a position he held until He remained in office in two consecutive centre-right cabinets in and in His first cabinet failed in obtaining the confidence vote and he was forced to resign after only 9 days; this government has been the one with the shortest period of fullness of powers in the history of the Italian Republic. Andeotti's approach owed little to a belief that market mechanisms could be left to work without interference. He used price controls on essential food stuffs and various social reforms to reach an understanding with organised labour.
A law of 11 August extended health insurance to citizens over the age of 65 in receipt of a social pension. A law of 30 June extended cost of living indexation to the social pension. A devout Catholic, Andreotti was on close terms with six successive pontiffs. He gave the Vatican unsolicited advice on occasion, and was often heeded.
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He updated the relationship of Roman Catholicism to the Italian state in an accord he presented to parliament. It put the country on a more secular basis: abolishing Roman Catholicism as the state religion, making religious instruction in public schools optional, and having the Church accept Italy's divorce law, in Andreotti opposed legal divorce and abortion , but despite his party opposition, wasn't able to avoid the legalization of abortion in May President Richard Nixon. However, in he paid an official visit to the Soviet Union , which was the first one by an Italian Prime Minister in more than a decade.
During his premiership, Italy opened and developed diplomatic and economic relationships with Arab countries of the Mediterranean Basin , and supported business and trade between Italy and the Soviet Union. The ensuing elections saw the growth of the Italian Communist Party PCI , and the DC kept only a minimal advantage as the relative majority party in Italy, which was then suffering from an economic crisis and from terrorism.
After the success of his party, the Communist secretary Enrico Berlinguer approached DC's left-leaning leaders, Moro and Fanfani, with a proposal to bring forward the so-called Historic Compromise , a political pact proposed by Moro which would see a government coalition between DC and PCI for the first time.
Andreotti, known as a staunch anti-communist, was called in to lead the first experiment in that direction: his new cabinet, formed in July , included only members of his own Christian Democratic party but had the indirect support of the communists. Andreotti's third cabinet was called "the government of the "not- no confidence ", because it was externally supported by all the political parties in the Parliament, except for the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement.
On 28 January the Parliament approved the Land Use Law, which introduced severe constraints on construction, such as new criteria for land expropriations and new planning procedures. On 27 July , the Fair Rent Law completed state control of rents with general rules for rent levels and terms of leases. A law of 16 February introduced ad hoc upgrading of cash benefits for the agricultural sector.